Re-presentation of Korean Traditions :
Chae Seungwoo

Countries who have experienced colonial period and rebuilt a nation in 20th century have similar problems on the identity. They try to reproduce their traditions and construct national identity. In this matter, Korea shows distinct
gestures. After gaining independence from the Japanese rule, Korea had achieved miraculous economic growth only within 30 years. Passing through the modernization period, Korea tried hard to discard a premodern way of life.
Escape from the premodern era was regarded as a shortcut to modernization. Somewhere between the two, we had lost a lot of things. The current reenactments of Korean traditions exemplified a serious discontinuation in Korea’s society. Calling them as “invented tradition”, Historian Eric Hobsbawm said that invented traditions occurred more frequently at times of rapid social transformation. In the modern era, a national flag, a state and heroes are made in the process of establishing the concept of anation and a people. The story of origins about a nation and people is required to be deep-rooted. The general public learns them via mass media. Nowdays another aspect is observed. It’s Tourism. Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation announced in its website that it would strive to promote Korea’s
beautiful and glamorous traditions and cultures to domestic and overseas tourists by reproducing traditional ceremonies. Tourism, in the issues of globalization, “periphery and semi-periphery”, has become another serious
subject. In every traditional reenactment event, a number of photographers come to record a tradition, not a reenactment. Photographers discover what they want through framing and point of view. These two decide what to see and what to discard. Images of reenacted ceremonies are completed by photos, broadcasting, and mass media.

 

20세기에 식민지를 경험하고 국가를 재건한 나라들은 정체성의 문제에 있어서비슷한 경험들을 가지고 있다. 이들은 전통을 재현하고, 정체성을 만들어내려고한다. 한국은 이 점에 있어서 어떤 나라보다 분명한 몸짓을 보여주고 있다. 일본 강점기이후 약 30년 만에 한국은 기적에 가까운 경제발전을 이루었다. 그근대화의 시기에 한국은 의식적으로 전근대를 버리려고 노력했다. 전근대로부터의 탈피는 근대화로 가는 지름길이었다. 현재 한국의 아스팔트 도로 위에서 펼쳐지는 수 많은 재현행렬들은 우리 사회가큰 단절을 경험했음을 말하고 있다. 역사학자 홉스봄은 ‘만들어진 전통’을 이야기
한다. 사회가 변하는 때에 전통을 만드는 작업이 왕성하게 이루어졌다고 한다. 근대에 들어오면서 국가와 민족의 개념이 형성되는 시기에 집중되었는데 국기,국가, 영웅들이 이때 만들어졌다. 국가와 민족의 기원에 대한 이야기는 될수록
옛날에 뿌리를 두고 싶어 하고 이는 대중미디어를 통해 공유된다. 최근에는 또 다른 양상을 관찰할 수 있는데, 관광산업이 그것이다. 한국문화재보 호재단 홈페이지의 재현행사 소개에는 ‘국내외 관광객들에게 우리의 화려하면서도 아름다운 전통문화를 알리는데 노력한다.’고 쓰여 있다. 관광이 세계화, 주변과 반주변의 문제에서 또 하나의 중요한 주제이다.
전통재현행사에는 수많은 카메라들이 모여든다. ‘재현행사’가 아닌 ‘전통’을 기록하기 위해서이다. 카메라들은 시점과 프레이밍(framing)을 통해 원하는 이미지를찾아낸다. 사진의 시점과 프레임은 보고 싶은 것을 결정하고, 원하지 않는 것을
화면 밖으로 밀어낸다. 그리하여 재현행사의 이미지는 사진과 방송, 대중미디어를 통해 완성된다.

 

ประเทศที่มีประสบการณ์ในยุคอาณานิคมและสร้างประเทศใหม่ในศตวรรษที่ 20 มีปัญหาที่คล้ายกันในเรื่องของอัตลักษณ์ประเทศเหล่านั้นพยายามที่จะผลิตซ้ำประเพณีของตัวเองและสร้างอัตลักษณ์ประจำชาติซึ่งในเรื่องนี้ประเทศเกาหลีได้แสดงให้เห็นอย่างชัดเจนหลังจากได้รับอิสรภาพจากการปกครองของประเทศญี่ปุ่นเกาหลีได้รับความสำเร็จด้านการเติบโตทางเศรษฐกิจภายใน 30 ปีเท่านั้น หลังจากผ่านช่วงเวลาที่ทันสมัย เกาหลีได้พยายามอย่างหนักที่จะทิ้งวิถีชีวิตแบบเดิม การหลีกหนีจากยุคก่อนสมัยใหม่เป็นทางลัดที่นำไปสู่ความทันสมัย ที่ไหนซักแห่งหนึ่งระหว่าง 2 สิ่งนี้ คือ เราได้สูญเสียสิ่งต่าง ๆ มากมาย ผลงานทางวัฒนธรรมของเกาหลีในปัจจุบันสะท้อนให้เห็นถึงการยุติการผลิตอย่างจริงจังในสังคมเกาหลี เราเรียกว่า “ประเพณีประดิษฐ์” นักประวัติศาสตร์ Eric
Hobsbawm กล่าวว่าประเพณีประดิษฐ์เกิดขึ้นบ่อยในช่วงเวลาของการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางสังคมอย่างรวดเร็ว ในยุคสมัยใหม่ ธงชาติ
รัฐ และวีรบุรุษถูกสร้างขึ้นในกระบวนการก่อตั้งแนวความคิดของชาติและประชาชนเรื่องราวต้นกำเนิดของชาติและประชาชนจำเป็นจะต้องมีรากฐานที่หยั่งลึกสาธารณะชนทั่วไปจะเรียนรู้สิ่งเหล่านี้ผ่านสื่อมวลชน ทุกวันนี้มุมมองอื่น ๆ อย่างการท่องเที่ยวได้รับการสังเกตจากการที่มูลนิธิอนุรักษ์ทรัพย์สมบัติทางวัฒนธรรมเกาหลีประกาศในเวบไซต์ของตนเองว่าความมุ่งมั่นที่จะส่งเสริมประเพณี
และวัฒนธรรมที่สวยงามของเกาหลีให้กับนักท่องเที่ยวทั้งในประเทศและต่างประเทศโดยการผลิตซ้ำพิธีการแบบดั้งเดิม การท่องเที่ยวในประเด็นของโลกาภิวัตน์ ชายขอบและกึ่งชายขอบ ได้กลายเป็นเรื่องร้ายแรงอีกประเด็นหนึ่งในทุก ๆ งานกิจกรรมแบบดั้งเดิมที่จัดขึ้นซ้ำช่างภาพจำนวนหนึ่งได้มาเพื่อบันทึกภาพประเพณีช่างภาพค้นพบสิ่งที่พวกเขาต้องการผ่านกรอบและมุมมอง ทั้งสองสิ่งนี้เป็นการตัดสินใจว่าจะดูอะไรและควรทิ้งอะไรภาพของพิธีการเหล่านี้เสร็จสมบูรณ์โดยรูปถ่าย การออกอากาศและสื่อมวลชน

Seungwoo Chae
Born in Seoul, Korea, 1968. Worked as a staff photographer for one of themajor newspaper company in Korea, since 1995, for 19 years. Received several awards including Korean journalists association award in 1998,
Samsung journalism award in 1998, Photo of the year by Editors in 2008. Left the newspaper company in 2013 and travelled around world with his wife for 1 year. His works are mainly focused on the issues of identity of Korean culture. As Solo exhibitions, Sounds of Flags in 2003, Poses of Public Relations in 2006, Re-Presentation of Traditions in 2008, Museum of Agriculture in 2011 were held. Participated in several group exhibitions including Aspects of Korean Contemporary Photography which is held at National Taiwan Museum of Fine Art in 2010, Traces of War, Dong-gang Int. Photo Festival in 2010, Reconstruction of Tradition-Documentary pictures of Chosun Dynasty in 2010.

채승우 蔡承雨 Seungwoo Chae
1995년부터 19년간 신문사에서 사진기자로 일했다. 사진기자로 일하는 동안,
1998년 한국기자상, 삼성언론상, 2008년 편집기자가 뽑은 올해의 사진상 등을
받았다. 2013년 직장을 그만두고 아내와 함께 1년간 세계여행을 했다. 지금은 전
업 사진가로 작업을 하고 있다.
한국의 정체성을 묻는 사진 작업을 계속하고 있는데, 개인 사진전으로 2003년
‘깃발소리’, 2006년 ‘경제연감’, 2008년 ‘신반차도’, 2011년 ‘농업박물관’전을 열었
다. 2009년 ‘다큐멘터리 사진가를 만나다.’, 2010년 대만 국립미술관에서 열린
‘한국 현대사진의 최전선’전, 2010년 동강국제사진제 특별전, 2010년 전통의 재
구성-조선시대 기록화전 등 여러 번의 그룹전에도 참가했다.
2004년 출판 ‘사진이 즐거워지는 사진책’, 2010년 ‘사진을 찾아 떠나다’등 책을
출판했고, 최근에 여행기 ‘여관방-여행 관광 방랑’을 냈다.