THE END OF MARDAI : Vlad Sokhin

In the late 1970s, Soviet geologists discovered large uranium deposits near Mardai River in the Dornod province of Eastern Mongolia. The governments of the USSR and Mongolia signed a secret agreement to open a uranium mine in 1981 and Mardai town rose out of the Mongolian steppe to accommodate workers and officials. Its location and the railroad that connected Mardai to the Soviet Union did not appear on any map. The town was populated only by Russians, who came from all over the USSR. Some 13 000 people lived there in the late 80s and early 90s, while Mongolians were strictly prohibited from entering the Mardai exclusive zone, which was guarded and patrolled by the Russian police and army.

Only on rare occasions were Mongolian Communist Party officials allowed to enter Mardai on official visits and to shop in the local stores for products direct from Moscow. Local shops sold items that were not even available Ulan Bator. Mardai had a school and a kindergarten with the best teachers, a fully equipped sports hall, a football and hockey ground, an Olympic size swimming pool and even a ferris wheel.

The mine started operating in 1988; uranium ore was extracted and shipped to Krasnokamensk in Siberia where it was processed. The mine provided about 100,000 tonnes of ore a year, most of which was used for Soviet nuclear warheads and strategic reserves. Only one nomadic family has been living in Mardai permanently for the past 13 years.

 

1970 년대 후반, 소련의 지질 학자들은 동부 몽골의 도르 노드 (Dornod) 지방의 마르 다이 강 (Mardai River) 근처에 대규모 우라늄 매장지를 발견했다.  소련과 몽골 정부는 1981 년에 우라늄 광산을 개방한다는 비밀 협약에 서명했으며 노동자와 관리를 수용하기 위해 마르다이 마을은 몽골 대초원에서 물러났다. 그 위치와 마르다이를 소련에 연결시킨 철도는 어떤 지도에도 나타나지 않는다. 이 도시는 소련 전역에서 온 러시아인들에 의해서만 채워졌다. 80 년대 후반과 90 년대 초에 약 1 만 3 천명이 살았고 몽골 인들은 러시아 경찰과 군대에 의해 감시되고 마르 다이 전용 구역에 들어가는 것이 엄격히 금지되었다.

드물게 몽골 공산당 관리들은 공식 방문을 통해 마다이에 입국 할 수 있었고 모스크바에서 직매 한 제품을 현지 상점에서 구입할 수있었다. 지역 상점은 심지어 울란바토르에서 구할 수 없었던 상품들을 판매하였다. Mardai에는 최고의 교사, 완비 된 스포츠 홀, 축구와 하키 경기장, 올림픽 규모의 수영장 및 관람차가있는 학교와 유치원이 있었다.

광산은 1988 년에 가동하기 시작했다. 우라늄 광석이 추출되어 처리 된 시베리아의 Krasnokamensk로 운송되었다. 광산은 연간 약 10 만 톤의 광석을 제공했으며, 그 중 대부분은 소련의 핵탄두와 전략적 매장지에 사용되었다. 지난 13 년 동안 유목민 한 가만 영구적으로 마르다이 (Mardai)에 살고 있다.

 

ในช่วงปลายคริสตศักราช 1970 นักธรณีวิทยาชาวโซเวียตค้นพบแหล่งยูเรเนี่ยมขนาดใหญ่บริเวณใกล้แม่น้ำ Mardai ในเมือง Dornod ทางตะวันออกของมองโกเลีย รัฐบาลของสหภาพโซเวียตและมองโกเลียได้ร่วมกันลงนามข้อตกลงเปิดเหมืองยูเรเนี่
ยมอย่างลับๆในปี 1981 ทำให้เมือง Mardi กลายเป็นที่ตั้งสำหรับคงงานเหมืองและเจ้าหน้าที่โดยที่ตำแหน่งที่ตั้งของเมืองและเส้นทางรถไฟที่เชื่อมระหว่าง Mardi กับสหภาพโซเวียตไม่ปรากฎในแผนที่ใดๆ ผู้คนในเมืองดังกล่าวมีเพียงชาวรัซเซียที่มาจากหลายภูมิภาคในโซเวียต โดยพบว่ามีประชาชนอาศัยอยู่ประมาณ 13,000 คน ในช่วงปลายปี 80 และ 90 ตอนต้น ในขณะที่ชาวมองโกเลียถูกห้ามไม่ให้เข้าในโซนพิเศษ Mordai อย่างเเข้มงวดโดยมีการเฝ้าคุ้มกันและลาดตระเวณจากตำรวจและกองทัพรัซเซีย มีเพียงโอกาศพิเศษเพียงนานครั้งเท่านั้นที่เจ้าหน้าที่จากพรรคคอมมิวนิสม์มองโกเลีย จะได้รับอนุญาตให้เข้าเยี่ยม Mardai อย่างเป็นทางการเพื่อซื้อสินค้านำเข้าจากมอสโกจากร้านค้าในพื้นที่ ร้านค้าในพื้นที่มีการจำหน่ายสินค้าที่ไม่มีขายแม้แต่ในเมืองหลวงของมองโกเลีย
อย่าง Ulan Bator เมือง Mardi มีโรงเรียนและโรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ประกอบไปด้วย ครูชั้นยอด โรงยิมที่มีอุปกรณ์ครบครัน สนามฟุตบอล สนามฮอกกี้ และสระว่ายน้ำขนาดมาตรฐานโอลิมปิก มีแม้กระทั่งชิงช้าสวรรค์ เหมืองยูเรเนี่ยมเริ่มการขุดเจาะในปี 1988 แร่ยูเรเนี่ยมจะถูกสกัดและส่งต่อไปยังแหล่งผลิตในไซบีเรีย เหมืองแห่งนี้ให้แร่ประมาณหนึ่งแสนตันต่อปี โดยส่วนใหญ่ถูกนำไปใช้สำหรั ขีปนาวุธโซเวียตและเป็นแร่สำรองมีเพียงครอบครัวนักพเนจรเพียงครอบครัวเดียวเท่านั้นที่เคยพำนักอาศัยอยู่ใน Mardi เป็นเวลากว่า 13 ปี

VLAD SOKHIN

Vlad Sokhin (Russia/Portugal) is a documentary photographer, videographer and multimedia producer. He covers social, cultural, environmental, health and human rights issues around the world, including post-conflict and natural disaster zones.

Vlad has worked on photo, video and radio projects, collaborating with various international media and with the United Nations and international NGOs. Vlad’s work has been exhibited and published internationally, including at Visa Pour L’Image and Head On photo festivals and in the National Geographic, International Herald Tribune, Newsweek Japan, BBC World Service, the Guardian, National Geographic Traveler, GEO, ABC, NPR, The Atlantic, Stern, Le Monde, Paris Match, Esquire, Das Magazin, WIRE Amnesty International, Sydney Morning Herald, Marie Claire, The Global Mail, Russian Reporter and others.

Vlad has produced short multimedia films as well as fundraising and campaign videos for UNICEF, UNAIDS, UN Women, OHCHR, The Fred Hollows Foundation, Amnesty International and ChildFund.

Vlad has lived and worked in Russia, Portugal, Spain, Mozambique, Thailand and Australia. He is currently based in Dakar, Senegal and works between Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East.

 

다큐멘터리 사진가, 다큐멘터리 영화감독, 그리고 멀티미디어 제작자이다. 분쟁과 재난 지역을 포함한 사회, 문화, 환경, 보건, 인권과 관련된 세계 곳곳의 이슈를 다루는 작업을 하고 있다. 사진, 비디오 그리고 라디오 프로젝트를 진행하고 있다. 다양한 국제적인 매체 그리고 UN, 국제 엔지오들과 함께 일을 하고 있다. 그의 작업은 빼흐피낭사진축제, 헤드 온 포토 페스티벌, 국제 헤럴드 트리뷴, 비비씨 월드 서비스, 가디언, 네셔널 지오그래픽 트래블러, 지오, ABC, 파리마치, 르 몽드, 모닝 헤럴를 포함하여 국제적으로 전시, 간행되었다.